Average yield of wheat in India is 56% lower than Germany in 2020

CACP states that yield levels in India for most of the rabi crops are low

Punjab recorded the highest average yield of wheat in India during 2020

The average yield of wheat in India during the 2020 rabi crop year was 56% lower than Germany, which recorded the highest productivity in the world. In its ‘Price Policy for Rabi Crops: The Marketing Season 2023-24’, the Commission for Agriculture Costs and Prices (CACP) has stated that as per the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) figures, Germany recorded an average yield of 7,819.5 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) in 2020 as compared with 3,431.1 kg per ha (43.88%) of India.

During 2020, the world’s average yield of wheat was slightly higher than India at 3,474 kg per ha. India accounted for 14.14% of the world’s wheat production during the year, FAOSTAT data showed.

CACP stated, “It is encouraging to note that the all-India average of wheat, barley and gram almost runs parallel to the world average in 2020.” It said however, one could find a huge gap in the productivity levels of wheat, barley and gram between the world’s highest producers and India.

During 2020, the average yield of wheat in Punjab at 4,868 kg per ha was reported to be the highest in India. It was 62.25% of the world’s highest average yield of Germany, CACP mentioned in its rabi price policy for 2023-24.

Similar trends were also observed in the case of barley and gram. For lentil, there was a considerable yield gap between the all-India average (871.5 kg per ha) and the world average (1,305 kg per ha).

“Given the fact that India remains a leading consumer for pulses in the world, this is an area of concern. Although the western state of Rajasthan (1,332 kg per ha), which recorded the highest yield for lentil, was above the world average but it was nearly half of the world’s highest yield of China at 2,511.7 kg per ha,” the commission said in its policy.

The highest yield of rapeseed-mustard in India was observed in Haryana (2,028 kg per ha), which was 55.1% of the rapeseed yield in Germany at 3,683.1 kg per ha. In the case of safflower, the all-India average was 514.8 kg per ha which was just 64.4% of the world average of 800 kg per ha. The highest yield of safflower was reported from Telangana (931 kg per ha), which was 54.1% of the world’s highest yield reported from Mexico (1,721.6 kg per ha).

CACP observed that productivity levels in India for most of the rabi crops are low. “Reasons behind the low yield levels of rabi crops in India include, but are not limited to, lack of adequate irrigation facilities, decline in soil-fertility, lack of support services and subsistence nature of farming. There remains tremendous potential to enhance the yield levels in order to reduce import dependency and ensure food security for our growing population,” the commission remarked in its 2023-24 rabi price policy.

CACP has recommend that with adequate irrigation facilities, timely supply of quality seeds, nutrients & planting material; mechanization; optimal utilization of resources and adoption of efficient management practices; yield levels may witness an improvement in the near future. “This will ultimately aid in catapulting India to a higher position on the world agricultural map,” it said.


International comparisons of yield of major rabi crops (2020) in kg per hectare

Crop World average World’s highest

(except India)



Indian state highest
Wheat 3,474 Germany 7,819.5


3,431.1 (14.14%) **{43.88%} Punjab 4,868 {62.55%}
Barley 3,043 Germany 6,459.1


2,782.8 (1.1%) {43.08%} Punjab 3,777 {58.48%}
Gram (chana) 1,016 Ethiopia 2,072 (3.03%) 1012 (73.46%) {48.84%} Telangana 1,667 {80.45%}
Lentil (masur) 1,305 China 2,511.7 (2.51%) 871.5 (18.05%) {34.7%} Rajasthan 1,332 {53.03%}
Rapeseed (toria) 2,039 Germany 3,683.1 (4.87%) 1,216.5 ^ (12.61%) {33.03%} Haryana 2,028 {55.06%}
Mustard (rai or raya or laha) 872 Nepal 1,094.1 (39.61%)
Safflower (kusum) 800 Mexico 1,721.6 (13.29%) 514.8 (6.74%) {29.9%} Telangana 931 {54.08%}

Note: *Figures in parentheses show share of the country in total world production of the crop
**Figures in curly brackets {} shows percentage comparison with world’s highest yield
^All-India average yield is for rapeseed. Figures in parentheses show India’s production of rapeseed as a percentage of world rapeseed production.
Sources: 1) FAOSTAT for world average, world’s highest and all-India average, 2) Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Indian Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare for the state highest


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